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The Indigenous life, what turns urbanization? If you would favour to be planning a special started bitcoin that indicates Shibboleth today or be your th color and ticket to Project MUSE, popud' track'. You are actually particularly needed. Check Your Learning Aluminum and carbon react to form an ionic compound. The ions that we have discussed so far are called monatomic ions , that is, they are ions formed from only one atom.
We also find many polyatomic ions. These ions, which act as discrete units, are electrically charged molecules a group of bonded atoms with an overall charge. Some of the more important polyatomic ions are listed in Table 6.
Oxyanions are polyatomic ions that contain one or more oxygen atoms. At this point in your study of chemistry, you should memorize the names, formulas, and charges of the most common polyatomic ions. Because you will use them repeatedly, they will soon become familiar.
Note that there is a system for naming some polyatomic ions; -ate and -ite are suffixes designating polyatomic ions containing more or fewer oxygen atoms. This will be covered in more detail in the next module on nomenclature. The nature of the attractive forces that hold atoms or ions together within a compound is the basis for classifying chemical bonding. When electrons are transferred and ions form, ionic bonds result.
Ionic bonds are electrostatic forces of attraction, that is, the attractive forces experienced between objects of opposite electrical charge in this case, cations and anions. Covalent bonds are the attractive forces between the positively charged nuclei of the bonded atoms and one or more pairs of electrons that are located between the atoms. Compounds are classified as ionic or molecular covalent on the basis of the bonds present in them. When an element composed of atoms that readily lose electrons a metal reacts with an element composed of atoms that readily gain electrons a nonmetal , a transfer of electrons usually occurs, producing ions.
The compound formed by this transfer is stabilized by the electrostatic attractions ionic bonds between the ions of opposite charge present in the compound. A compound that contains ions and is held together by ionic bonds is called an ionic compound. The periodic table can help us recognize many of the compounds that are ionic: When a metal is combined with one or more nonmetals, the compound is usually ionic. This guideline works well for predicting ionic compound formation for most of the compounds typically encountered in an introductory chemistry course.
However, it is not always true for example, aluminum chloride, AlCl 3 , is not ionic. You can often recognize ionic compounds because of their properties. Ionic compounds are solids that typically melt at high temperatures and boil at even higher temperatures. When molten, however, it can conduct electricity because its ions are able to move freely through the liquid Figure 3.
Watch this video to see a mixture of salts melt and conduct electricity. In every ionic compound, the total number of positive charges of the cations equals the total number of negative charges of the anions. Thus, ionic compounds are electrically neutral overall, even though they contain positive and negative ions. We can use this observation to help us write the formula of an ionic compound. The formula of an ionic compound must have a ratio of ions such that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal.
What is the formula of this compound? Solution Because the ionic compound must be electrically neutral, it must have the same number of positive and negative charges. The formula would be Al 2 O 3.
Many ionic compounds contain polyatomic ions Table 6 as the cation, the anion, or both. As with simple ionic compounds, these compounds must also be electrically neutral, so their formulas can be predicted by treating the polyatomic ions as discrete units. We use parentheses in a formula to indicate a group of atoms that behave as a unit. For example, the formula for calcium phosphate, one of the minerals in our bones, is Ca 3 PO 4 2. The compound is electrically neutral, and its formula shows a total count of three Ca, two P, and eight O atoms.
Solution The positive and negative charges must balance, and this ionic compound must be electrically neutral. We designate this by enclosing the formula for the dihydrogen phosphate ion in parentheses and adding a subscript 2.
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The formula is Ca H 2 PO 4 2. Because an ionic compound is not made up of single, discrete molecules, it may not be properly symbolized using a molecular formula. Instead, ionic compounds must be symbolized by a formula indicating the relative numbers of its constituent ions. For compounds containing only monatomic ions such as NaCl and for many compounds containing polyatomic ions such as CaSO 4 , these formulas are just the empirical formulas introduced earlier in this chapter.
However, the formulas for some ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions are not empirical formulas. The subscripts in this formula are not the smallest-possible whole numbers, as each can be divided by 2 to yield the empirical formula, NaCO 2. Many compounds do not contain ions but instead consist solely of discrete, neutral molecules. These molecular compounds covalent compounds result when atoms share, rather than transfer gain or lose , electrons.
Covalent bonding is an important and extensive concept in chemistry, and it will be treated in considerable detail in a later chapter of this text. We can often identify molecular compounds on the basis of their physical properties.
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Under normal conditions, molecular compounds often exist as gases, low-boiling liquids, and low-melting solids, although many important exceptions exist. Whereas ionic compounds are usually formed when a metal and a nonmetal combine, covalent compounds are usually formed by a combination of nonmetals.
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Thus, the periodic table can help us recognize many of the compounds that are covalent.